GlOSSARY


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'Abdu'llah The father of the Prophet.  He belonged to the family of Hashim, the noblest tribe of the Quraish section of the Arabian race, directly descended from Ishmael.
'Abdu'llah-i-Ubayy A prominent opponent of Muhammad; called "the prince of hypocrites."
Abraham See Genesis 11-25; Some Answered Questions, pp 14-16.   Scholars give 2100 B.C. - 2000 B.C. as his dates.  Regarded by Jews, Christians, and Muslims as the Friend of God, the Father of the Faithful.
Abu-'Abdi'llah Designation of the sixth Imam, Ja'far-i-Sadiq (the Veridical), great-grandson of al-Husayn.  Died A.D. 765, poisoned by Mansur, the 'Abbaside Caliph.
Abu'Amir An opponent of Muhammad, a monk.
Abu Jahl Literally, "the Father of Folly"; so styled by the Muslims.   An implacable enemy of the Prophet.
'Ali The son-in-law of the Prophet, the first of the twelve Imams.
Alif, Lam, Mim These and other disconnected letters appear at the head of twenty-nine surihs of the Qur'an.
Al-Medina Literally, "the City," so called as giving shelter to Muhammad: formerly Yathrib.  The burial place of Muhammad; second only to Mecca in sanctity.
Amalekites Expelled in early times from Babylonia, they spread through Arabia to Palestine and Syria and as far as Egypt, to which they gave several of its Pharohs.
Athim Sinner
'Avalim A compilation of Shi'ih traditions.
Bab The Qa'im and Mihdi of Islam, and the Forerunner of Baha'u'llah.   (Birth of the Bab: October 20, 1819;  His Martyrdom: July 9, 1850).
Baghdad Founded by the Caliph at Mansur in A.D. 762 on the site of a Christian village on the western bank of the Tigris.  It remained 500 years the seat of the Abbasid Government.
Baha Literally, "Glory," "Splendor," referring to Baha'u'llah (Mirza Husayn 'Ali) who had not yet declared Himself but had already been designated by this title.
Baha'u'llah The founder of the Baha'i Faith, the title being recorded in the Persian Bayan of the Bab and meaning the Glory, the Light, and the Splendor of God. (Birth of Baha'u'llah: November 12, 1817; His death: May 29, 1892).
Bani-Hashim The family to which Muhammad belonged.
Batha Meccca
Bayan The Bayan (Exposition) is the cheif doctrinal work of the Bab.  It is described in God Passes By (pp 24-25) as a monumental repository of the laws and precepts of the new Dispensation and the treasury enshrining most of the Bab's references and tributes to, as well as His warning regarding 'Him Whom God will make manifest'....this Book, of about eight thousand verses, occupying a pivotal position in Babi literature, should be regarded primarily as a eulogy of the Promised One rather than a code of laws and ordinances designed to be a permanent guide to future generations.   The Bab also wrote "the smaller and less weighty Arabic Bayan."
Bihar Reference to Shi'ih tradition
Biharu'l-Anvar A compilation of Shi'ih traditions
Caiaphas The Jewish high priest who presided at the court which tried and condemned Jesus.
Cain and Abel The two sons of Adam and Eve.  See Genesis 4 and Qur'an, surih 5.
Caliphs Literally, "successors" or "viceregents."  The Shi'ihs hold that the successors of the Prophet must be the members of His own family, but they do not use the title Khalifih, or "Caliph."  The Sultan of Turkey assumed this title early in the 16th century.
Cherubim In the Bible the Cherubim appear as distinct from the angels who are Jehovah's messengers, while the Cherubim are found where God is personally present: e.g. "And he [God] rode upon a cherub." (Psalms 18:10).  Figures of Cherubim were wrought into the hangings of the Holy of Holies and were represented above the Mercy Seat within.  In later tradition, the Cherubim were included among the nine orders of angels.
Copt The Copts were descendants of the ancient Egyptian stock.  They were unbelievers in the time of Moses.  The Septs were the tribes of Israel.
Crimson Pillar An allusion to the Religion of Baha'u'llah, crimsoned with the blood of martyrs.
Divine Elixir Symbolic reference to the Elixir of the alchemists, that was supposed to transform base metals into gold.
Fatimih The daughter of Muhammad and Khadijih.  She married 'Ali, the cousin of Muhammad, and had three sons.  One died in infancy and from the other two, Hasan and Husayn, are descended the posterity of the Prophet known as Siyyids.
Gabriel The highest of all the angels, the Holy Spirit.  It is his duty to write down the decrees of God; through him the Qur'an was revealed to Muhammad.
Ha The letter H, the number of which is 5, and which is sometimes used as a symbol of Baha'u'llah: see Four Valleys, p 56 n.
Haji Mirza Karim Khan A pretender to knowledge, author of a book, "Guidance to the Ignorant" ("Irshadu'l-'Avam"), whose works perished with him.
Hamizih "Prince of Martyrs," the title given to Muhammad's uncle.
Herod Herod I ("The Great").  An Idumaean by race, but brought up a Jew.  He was appointed by the Roman Senate in 40 B.C. as King of Judea.  He rebuilt the Temple in Jerusalem.
Hijaz A region in southwestern Arabia which may be considered the holy land of the Muslims since it contains the sacred cities of Medina and Mecca and many other places connected with the history of Muhammad.  The "language of Hijaz" is Arabic.
Hud A prophet sent to the tribe of 'Ad.  He was descended from Noah and is referred to in the Qur'an in surih 7:63-70; surih 11:52-63; and in surih 26:123-139.
Husayn The third Imam.  Son of 'Ali and Fatimih.
Ibn-i-Suriya A learned Jewish Rabbi at the time of Muhammad.
Imam 'Ali The cousin and first disciple of Muhammad; husband of Muhammads daughter, Fatimih; and through his son Husayn, ancestor of Siyyid 'Ali Muhammad, the Bab.
'Imran The father of Moses and Aaron; Qur'an, surih 3:30 and Bible, Exodus 6:20.
'Iraq Part of the Turkish Empire in 1862 when this book was revealed.  Now an Arab Kingdom with Baghdad as its capital.
Joseph The son of Jacob, and in the Qur'an an inspired prophet.
Ka'b-Ibn-i-Ashraf Conspired with the Prophet's arch-enemy, Abu Sufyan, to compass the Prophet's death.
Ka'bih Literally, a "cube."  The cube-like building in the center of the Mosque at Mecca, which contains the Black Stone.
Kafi An important collection of Shi'ih traditions, Jabir being the authority for the quotation given on p. 245.
Karbila A city about 55 miles southwest of Baghdad on the Euphrates.
Karim Honorable
Kawthar A river of Paradise from which all the others flow.  Part of its waters are led into a great lake on the shores of which the souls of the faithful rest when they have crossed the terrible bridge which is laid over the midst of Hell.
Khaybar A mountainous district on the northwest border of India.
Kufih A city on the west bank of the Euphrates, which has now entirely disappeared.
Letters of Unity Apostles of the Prophet.
Leviathan An unidentified aquatic monster; whale or serpent.
Magi A caste of priests and sages among the ancient Persians.
Manifestation The nature of a prophet or the Manifestation of God is thus described in Gleanings from the Writings of Baha'u'llah (pp 66-67): "... since there can be no tie of direct intercourse to bine the one true God with His creation, and no resemblance whatever can exist between the transient and the Eternal, the contingent and the Absolute, He hath ordained that in every age and dispensation a pure and stainless Soul be made manifest in the kingdoms of earth and heaven....  These Essences of Detachment, these resplendent Realities are the channels of God's all-pervasive grace.  Led by the light of unfailing guidance, and invested with supreme soveriegnty, they are commissioned to use the inspiration of Their words, the effusions of Their infallible grace and the sanctifying breezes of Their Revelation for the cleansing of every longing heart and receptive spirit from the dross and dust of earthly cares and limitations."
Mecca The capital of Arabia, the birthplace of Muhammad, the site of the Ka'bih, and the most sacred city of Islam.
Midian A city and district on the Red Sea, southeast of Mt. Sinai, occupied by the descendants of Midian, son of Abraham and Keturah.  Qur'an, surih 7:83.
"Mi'raj" The night journey of Muhammad with Gabriel.
Moses One of the six great prophets, according to the Muhammadans.  See Exodus 4:16, where God says to Moses: "thou shalt be to him instead of God"; and Exodus 7:1: "I have made thee a god to Pharoh."  Moses led the exodus from Egypt, which is now dated about 1440 B.C.
Mufaddal Reference to Shi'ih tradition
Muhammad The Prophet of Islam and Revealer of the Qur'an.  Born August A.D. 570.  Declared His Mission A.D. 613.  Fled to Medina A.D. 622.  See Some Answered Questions, pp. 22-29.  Foretold by Moses, Deut. 18:15; by St John the Divine, Rev 11 (see Some Answered Questions, p. 53 ff.).
Mulla 'Abdu'l-Khaliq-i- Yazdi At first a Jewish priest, he accepted Islam, joined the Shaykhi School and was converted by Mulla Husayn to the Babi Faith, he became in Tihran one of its most earnest and able expositors.
Mulla 'Aliy-i-Bastami One of the Letters of the Living.  Sent on a special mission by the Bab from Shiraz in 1844, he became the first to suffer and lay down his life in the path of this new Faith.
Mulla Baqir A brother of Mulla Mihdiy-i-Kandi, martyred at Tabarsi.
Mulla Husayn The first to believe in the Bab, the first "Letter of the Living," the Babu'l-Bab" -- meaning "the Gate of the Gate," a title given him by the Bab.  Born in 1813, he was for nine years a student of Siyyid Kazim and for five a follower of the Bab.  He was martyred at the fort of Shaykh Tabarsi, on February 2, 1849.
Mulla Mihdiy-i-Khu'i A close companion of Baha'u'llah and tutor to the children of His household.  Martyred at Tabarsi.
Mulla Muhammad-'Aliy-i- Zanjani Surnamed Hujjat.  "One of the ablest and most formidable champions of the Faith" (God Passes By, p 44), the leader of the Babi's in what Lord Curzon called "the terrific siege and slaughter" they suffered at Zanjan where he with 1800 fellow disciples was martyred.
Mulla Ni'matu'llah-i- Mazindarani A Babi martyred at Shaykh Tabarsi.
Mulla Yusuf-i-Ardibili A "Letter of the Living," martyred at Shaykh Tabarsi.
Mustaghath Literally, "He who is invoked."  Referring to the appearance of Baha'u'llah at the time announced by the Bab.
Nadr-Ibn-i-Harith An opponent of Muhammad.
Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon. In 599 B.C. he captured Jerusalem, and in 588 B.C. he destroyed the city and removed most of the inhabitants to Chaldaea.
Nimrod In Muhammadan countries represented as the persecutor of Abraham.
Noah A prophet to whom Muhammadans give the title of the "Prophet of God," see Gen. 6:10 and Qur'an, surihs 11, 71, for an account of his life and of the Flood.
Nudbih, Prayer of A "Lamentation" of the Imam 'Ali.
Paradise A heavenly garden; a state of bliss. The Manifestation is "The Nightingale of Paradise"; His Revelation, "the rustling of the leaves of Paradise"; "the love of God" is itself Paradise.
Paran Paran is a mountain range north of Sinai and south of Seir; all are sacred as places of revelation.  Teman lies in northwest Edam, not far from Paran.  See Habakuk 3:3.  Moses himself uses "Paran" with special reference to Muhammad and "Seir" to Jesus Christ: "And he said, The Lord came from Sinai, rose up from Seir unto them; he shined forth from mount Paran, and he came with ten thousands of saints: from His right hand went a fiery law for them" (Deut. 33:2).  Here Moses foretells the coming of three revelations and three prophets after himself, the last being Baha'u'llah.  Ishmael (Gen 21:21) founded the Arabian peoples in Paran.
Pentateuch Literally, "the fivefold volume," referring to the first five books of the Bible.
Pharoh The common title of the kings of Egypt.  The Pharoh of the oppression is ususally held to be Ramesis II (about 1340 B.C.) and his son and successor Merenptah, the Pharoh of the Exodus, but this is highly uncertain and the birth of Moses is dated as early as 1520 B.C.
Philosophers Stone An imaginary substance which the alchemists sought as a means of converting baser metals into gold.
Phoenix A bird fabled to exist single, to be consumed by fire by its own act, and to rise again from its ashes.
Primal Will The first thing which emanated from God is that universal reality ... which the people of Baha call the 'First Will.'  (Some Answered Questions, p. 237)
Qa'im The promised one of Islam
Qayyumu'l-Asma A commentary on the Surih of Joseph in the Qur'an, written by the Bab in 1844, and regarded by the Babis as in effect their Qur'an.  (For an outline of its contents, see God Passes By, p. 23)
Qiblih The direction in which the face must be turned in prayer.  Qur'an, surih 2:136-145, establishes Mecca as the Qiblih for Muslims.
Quintessence An imagined fifth "essence of heaven" in addition to the four elements of earth: hence, the last or highest essence of anything.
Qur'an The Qur'an (Arabic, "reading"), the holy scriptures of the Muhammadan faith, revealed by Muhammad.  The verses are built up into chapters called surihs.  It contains 77,974 words and is slightly longer than the New Testament; it was composed over a period of 21 years.  The whole book was not arranged until after the Prophets death, but He is believed to have Himself divided the surihs and given most of them their present titles.  Translation into English by G. Sayle (1734) is the most authoritative, but that by J. M. Rodwell (Everyman's Series) is recommended as the best.  See also A. J. Arberry, The Koran Interpreted.
Rayy An ancient city near which Tihran is built.
Rik'ats Prostrations
Ridvan (Ed. note - pronounced Rizwan) The name of the custodian of Paradise.   Baha'u'llah uses it to denote Paradise itself.
Ruz-bih A Persian who embraced Christianity and being told a Prophet was about to arise in Arabia journeyed thither and meeting Muhammad at Koba in His flight to Medina recognized His station and became a Muslim.
Sadiq The sixth of the Shi'ih Imams.
Sadratu'l Muntaha The name of a tree planted by the Arabs in ancient times at the end of a road, to serve as a guide.  As a symbol it denotes the Manifestation of God in His Day.
Sadrih Literally, Branch.
Salih An ancient prophet to the Arabs, mentioned in the Qur'an, surih 7:71-77.   Some commentators identify him with the Salih of Genesis 11:13.
Salsabil Literally, softly flowing.  A fountain of Paradise.
Samiri A magician employed by Pharoh as a rival to Moses.  According to Muslims, it was he, not Aaron, who made the golden calf.
"Seal of the Prophets" One of the titles of Muhammad.
Shaykh Ahmad The first of the two forerunners of the Bab, born A.D. 1753, founder of the Shaykhi School and author of 96 books.  Died 1831.
Sheba A town in southern Arabia, referred to in Genesis 10:28; I Kings 10; II Chronicles 9.  Symbolically it stands for a dwelling place, a home.
Shi'ih The problem of succession divides Islam generally into two schools of opinion.  According to one view, represented chiefly by the Shi'ihs, the regency is a spiritual matter determined by the Prophet and by those who so succeed Him.   According to the other view, that of the Sunnites, the succession goes by popular choice.  The Caliphs of the Sunnites is the outward and visible Defender of the Faith.  The Shi'ih Imam is divinely ordained and gifted with more than human wisdom and authority.
Shoeb Priest of Midian (Exodus 2:16-21).  Moses married his daughter; Exodus 18 gives his name as Jethro.
Shiraz The capital of the Province of Fars in Persia; the place of the Bab's birth and the scene of His Declaration in 1844.
Sinai The mountain where God gave the Law to Moses (Qur'an, surih 7:139 and Exodus 19).
Sirat Literally, bridge or support; denotes the religion of God.
Siyyid Husayn-i-Turshizi A mujtahid, one of the Seven Martyrs of Tihran.
Siyyid Kazim Chief disciple of Shaykh Ahmad and his successor.  Husayn and other distinguished Babis were among his students.  Died December 31, 1843.
Siyyid Yahya, surnamed Vahid A distinguished divine of great learning who became a Babi and was martyred after the siege of Nayriz on June 29, 1850, ten days before the death of the Bab.
Sufis An order of Muhammadan mystics.
Surih A row or course, as of bricks in a wall.  A term used exclusively for the chapters of the Qur'an of which there are one hundred and fourteen.
Tablet A term for a sacred epistle containing a revelation.  The giving of the Law to Moses on tables or tablets is mentioned in the Qur'an, surih 7:142: "We wrote for him (Moses) upon tables (alwah, pl of lauh) a monition concerning every matter."
Taff (land of) The plain of Karbila in which vicinity Imam Husayn was martyred.
Thamud A tribe of ancient Hamitic people, inhabiting the borders of Edom and living in caves.  They were nearly exterminated by Chedorlaomer, the Elomite conqueror.  Teh survivors fled to Mt Seir where they dwelt in the time of Issac and Jacob.
Traditions The authoritative record of inspired sayings and acts of the Prophet, in addition to the revelation contained in the Qur'an.
'Urvatu'l-Vuthga Literally, "the strongest handle," meaning the Faith of God.
Yahya John, the forerunner of Jesus Christ.  He was beheaded by Herod.
Yanbu A compilation of Shi'ih traditions.
Yathrib The ancient name of the city which was changed to Medinat un-Nabi, the City of the Prophet, or shortly, Medina, the city par excellence.
Year Sixty Meaning 1260 A.H., A.D. 1844, the year of the Bab's Declaration.
Zaqqum A tree planted in the Infernal Regions.
Ziyarat Visiting Tablet revealed by Imam 'Ali.

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